Revised Methodology

The analysis of the work done so far requires a revision, or refinement, of the methodology. It might be better to look on the original project as a way to find the battlefield. The methodology proposed below is designed to investigate and confirm the location of the site at Fulford.

Metal working

Following the successful conservation of the material, it can now be handled and weighted

Analysis of ferrous finds

  1. Photograph, weight and record the existing material.
  2. Look for patterns by plotting the mass per area, and find number per area. This might yield some hotspots.
  3. The metal fragments around the two existing furnace areas will be examined in much more detail to see if they can be matched to known weapon patterns.
  4. The areas where the tanged arrow was found will be examined to see if the furnace can be identified on the Norse left flank to match those on the right flank.
  5. More work will be undertaken to see if the various metalworking tools can be dated or their origin identified.
  6. The area of the hoard need to be re-assessed as the spread is larger than suspected, with smaller items moving further away.
  7. Have some detailed metallurgical work undertaken on these hoard items to see of the micro structure indicates that the metal was re-worked and perhaps see if there are any patterns in the mirco analysis of the elements and isotopes in the iron.

New metal searches

  1. The area around the two furnaces needs to be re-searched as the original work was only a preliminary survey.
  2. A  search for hammer scale will be undertaken using a suitable technique as yet to be defined.
  3. The ceramic remains of the furnaces will also be the subject of a hunt although they might be too fragmented in the plough soil.
  4. Once any hotspots on the Norse left flank have been identified, more searches will be undertaken there. The aim will be to try and find areas where the arrowheads might have been made.


Having modelled the course of the Beck in 1066, a confirmatory survey needs to be undertaken to confirm where the beck met the river.

There are some ancient willow trees along the the beck, close to the river and some investigation to estimate the age of the parent tree, would provide further confirmation about the site. If this screen of trees existed, it would have been tactically significant to the course of the battle.

Analysis of non-ferrous material.

A further assessment of the area will be undertaken to look for patterns of usage. The focus has been on identifying individual items.  This should help to refine the land use in the time since the battle. In this context it would be worth combining the horse shoe collection as a guide to the way the land has been used. 


4/07 Chas Jones